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Motion and Forces

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Voyager 1 - Newton’s First Law

Voyager 1, our farthest spacecraft, is 19,000,000,000km from Earth.
This is due to Newton's first law of motion: An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

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Average speed and relative motion.
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Cheetah racing Usain Bolt calculations.
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Forces as vectors.

A force has both magnitude and direction, therefore force is a vector quantity.

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Unbalanced forces.

The space shuttle's main engines generate 37 million horsepower. The exhaust is primarily water vapor as the hydrogen and oxygen combine.

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Moment as the turning effect of a force.

The unit for moment is Newton-metre (Nm).
Moment = force x perpendicular distance between force and pivot point (M = F x d).
M = Moment. F = Weight. d - perpendicular distance.

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Air resistance.

Air resistance is the frictional force of the air. Wind tunnels are used to test and refine aerodynamics to reduce this force.

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Hooke's Law.

Hooke's law states that the force F needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance X is proportional to that distance.
That is: F = -kX, where k is a constant factor (the stiffness of the spring).

Illustration via Wikipedia

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Calculating work done as force x distance.

F (basketball weight) = 0.6kg x 9.81m/S² (gravity) = 5.886 N
d (distance) = 3m
W = 5.886 N x 3 m
W = 17.658 J
Aspen Photo / Shutterstock.com

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Energy in deforming materials.

When the ball hits the ground it begins to deform elastically and, in so doing, the kinetic energy is progressively converted into elastic strain energy, which is stored inside the ball. This elastic energy is due to the re-arrangement of molecules in the ball – like many springs being compressed.
When the kinetic energy has been completely converted into strain energy, it begins converting back into kinetic energy, “pushing” the ball back up.

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AP level. If you're looking for a basic (high school) understanding, you can skip this.

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Gravity forces.

Tides are the daily rise and fall of the oceans. The moon’s gravity pulls on the oceans creating a “bulge” called “high tide.”

Illustration by Blue Ring Media / Shutterstock

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Earth is a giant magnet.

Earth is a giant (but weak) magnet. Earth’s magnetic field is just strong enough to pull a magnetic needle in a compass toward the North Pole.

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Static electricity.

The hairs have the same charge, so they repel each other, standing up to get as far away as possible. That's how static electricity causes a bad hair day!

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Atmospheric pressure.

Air pressure is the force exerted on you by the weight of the air. Since there's a lot of "empty" space between air molecules, air can be compressed to fit in a smaller volume.

When it's compressed, air is said to be "under high pressure". Air at sea level is what we're used to, in fact, we're so used to it that we forget we're actually feeling air pressure all the time!

Text via NASA

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Air pressure above sea level can be calculated as

p = 101325 x (1 - 0.0000225577 x h)^5.25588

where

p = air pressure (Pa)

h = altitude above sea level (m)

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Strange storm.

A storm in the making. On the final landing approach to Kiev airport, a strange effect of different pressures creates a giant snow wave.

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Water pressure.
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Upthrust effect.

The deeper down an object is in a liquid, the greater the forces forces on it (from the liquid). Denser liquids apply more force. Therefore both the depth and liquid density will affect the upthrust on an object.

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Scuba diving.

When you swim down underwater, the high-density water all around you presses in from all sides. This means that if you were to try to breathe through a hose from the surface of the water, your lungs would need to push all that water weight outwards to make room for the air. This is impossible and that is where scuba comes in.

When you breathe from a scuba tank, you breathe air at the same pressure as the surrounding water. This means that, although the water presses in on you, the air you breathe presses back out with the same force. This makes it easy to breathe.

Text via physics.itsbaxter.com

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Two metal forks, a cork, and a matchstick balance on the lip of a glass. The center of mass of the fork-cork-match system is well below the pivot point, so balance is able to return after small perturbations. Please be careful when playing with matches.

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Journey on a distance-time graph.
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